Synthesis of 1 phenylazo 2 naphthol. Pdf downloads : oriental journal of chemistry
The EU rapid alert system announced that Sudan I was found in chili powder and the foods that were prepared with it. These results suggest that the liver carcinogenicity may not be due to the genotoxic effects of Sudan 1.
This classification was based on findings from animal experiments, conducted by the Federal institute for Risk Assessment BfR.
It is also carcinogenic in rats. Synthesis[ edit ] The synthesis of Sudan I involves the reaction of phenyldiazonium salts with 2-naphthol. The C-hydroxylated metabolites may be considered as the detoxication products, while the benzenediazonium ion BDI formed by microsome-catalyzed enzymatic splitting of the azo group of Sudan I, reacts with DNA in vitro.
Exposure to the skin can happen by direct exposure to textile workers or by wearing tight-fitting textiles dyed with Sudan 1. The mutagenicity and genetic hazard has been evaluated with the Ames-test and animal experiments.
All dyers should ensure that the supply company is fully informed about the legislation of the prohibited azo dyes. No textile of leather product are allowed to be colored with azo dyes a specific list of the items can be found in the Official Journal of the European Union.
Animal Experiments[ edit ] Sudan 1 was associated with a significant increase in neoplastic nodules and carcinomas in, both male and female rats. The origin was traced to adulterated chili powder.
The frequency of micro-nucleated bone marrow cells increased in a dose-dependent manner. No carcinogenic effects were visible in livers of mice after the application of Sudan 1.
Dyes without certification are not advised to be used. In addition to oxidation by CYP enzymes, Sudan I and its C-hydroxylated metabolites are also oxidized by peroxidases, such as a model plant peroxidase, but also by the mammalian enzyme, cyclooxygenase.
The fast reaction of the European Commission was it to prohibit the import of chili and hot chili products.
Non-ETAD member sources suppliers correlate with doubt about the origin and safety of the dyes. This supports the explanation that Sudan 1 is oxidized or activated by peroxidase in the blood cells and thereby forming micro-nucleated cells. Also the BfR Bundesinstitut fuer Risikobewertung was asked for their opinion and came to the conclusion that Sudan dyes are principally harmful to the health.
These metabolites are also found after oxidation with rat hepatic microsomes in vitro.
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