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World bank policy research working paper no, global income distribution : from the fall of the berlin wall to the great recession

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On the choice of Free online dating alberta regimes, the ongoing debate between price cap and rate of return regulation suggests that the latter may be better suited to developing country environments where the priority is to provide predictable returns to support large capital investment programs.

The edition of the database reveals that Regulators were seldom as independent as originally envisaged, with widespread divergence between the formal regulatory framework and the day-to-day practice of regulation.

Along with these gains, the data also show that big opportunities remain to increase financial inclusion, especially among women and poor people.

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In developing economies 1. The data reflect the views on governance of public sector, private sector and NGO experts, as well as thousands of citizen and firm survey respondents worldwide. We also explicitly report the margins of error accompanying each country estimate.

These reflect the inherent difficulties in measuring governance using any kind of data.

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See Less - Details. Digitizing payments like these would enable account holders to make the payments in a way that is easier, more affordable, and more secure. A growth in account penetration of 13 percentage points in developing economies and innovations in technology—particularly mobile money, which is helping to rapidly expand access to financial services in Sub-Saharan Africa.

The Global Findex Database Regulators will need to pay closer attention to providing the right incentives for utilities to innovate and become more energy efficient, and for consumers to take economically grounded decisions on distributed generation.

Taking stock of economic regulation of power utilities in the developing world: Nevertheless, there is some evidence that regulation has had a positive performance impact, particularly where utilities are privatized and in middle-income settings.

What drove this increase in account ownership?

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The edition of the database reveals that 62 percent of adults worldwide have an account at a bank or another type of financial institution or with a mobile money provider. See Less - Document Type: Aggregate and Individual Governance Indicators, June 29, Between andmillion adults became account holders while the number of those without an account—the unbanked—dropped by 20 percent to 2 billion.

Governments and the private sector can play a pivotal role by shifting the payment of wages and government transfers from cash into accounts. We find that even after taking margins of error into account, the WGI permit meaningful cross-country comparisons as well as monitoring progress over time.

There are also large opportunities to spur greater use of accounts, allowing those who already have one to benefit more fully from financial inclusion.

But the impact is more questionable in cases where regulation is primarily directed toward state-owned enterprises, which lack the commercial incentives to respond to regulatory instruments.

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These aggregate indicators are based on hundreds of specific and disaggregated individual variables measuring various dimensions of governance, taken from 35 data sources provided by 33 different organizations. Furthermore, the advent of technological disruption in the power sector demands an adaptation of the way in which regulatory instruments are designed and applied.

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June 29, Abstract This paper reports on the update of the Worldwide Governance Indicators WGI research project, covering countries and territories and measuring six dimensions of governance between and Governance, corruption, rule of law, indicators, voice JEL Classification: Finally, the literature leaves many important questions unanswered, such as how regulatory design affects regulatory effectiveness and the impact of tariff regulation on cost recovery.